1.           Introduction

The global population is rapidly growing and therefore the demand for high-quality protein from animal sources is rising steadily. This results in an increase in demand for animal protein. Maasai Mara University sits in the heart of the vast Maasai rangeland, a home to the greatest population of indigenous zebus. This ecosystem is changing fast, with the livestock owners embracing new husbandry technologies such as intensive dairy farming. In line with its mandate of improving community lives Maasai Mara University is seeking to train professionals and carry out research in animal health to improve animal health and welfare, increase their productivity which will in turn result in food security, and increased monetary returns from livestock keeping.

 At the same time, the need to develop capacity in animal health experts has been demonstrated by the fact that the country doesn't have enough experts to serve the animal population. Animal diseases are a major challenge and a threat to public health due the constant of zoonotic diseases. The threat is bound to escalate with the rise in population pressure, global warming phenomenon and therefore the need for more animal health and production experts, with a deep understanding of public health and environmental conservation issues. This need will lead to generation of scientific knowledge that can be used as a basis for sustainable exploitation of the animal resources, which will further improve the nutrition, and economic wellbeing of the nation. Major improvements can be achieved through scientifically enhanced management, nutrition, disease diagnostics, therapeutics and control, reproductive techniques, public health, and genetic improvement of production traits. Training highly skilled animal health and production resource scientists and managers can only meet these challenges.

Bachelor of Animal Health and Production graduates are the front line personnel and managers in the provision of animal health and production, public health and welfare services. This Bachelors course is therefore designed to provide human resource in animal health and production in order to develop the animal resource industry in Kenya as the nation aspires to realize the Vision 2030.

The four-year program leading to the Bachelor of Animal Health and Production is aimed at producing graduates with thorough theoretical knowledge and practical skills in nutrition, breeding, reproduction, management aspects of ruminant and non-ruminant animals and livestock health management in their capacity as paraprofessionals in the animal enterprise industry. The programme hopes to provide graduates with specialized knowledge of the subject but also a mind which has been trained and exposed well to establish practical scientific and technological procedures that can be applied in farm, research and industry platforms.

The Department vision is to offer basic courses and service courses for Animal science and health oriented faculties, with fast changing socio-economic and environmental concerns such as changing climatic patterns leading to reduced, shrinking land sizes, evolving customer expectations and national and international standards on issues such as animal welfare, antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

2.           Philosophy of the programme

With the ever-changing needs of the global economy, demands in science also changes. Well trained personnel are needed to sustain it through academic rigor, partnership with the industrial world and research institutions. The Bachelor of Animal Health and Production is designed to respond to the dynamic demands of the world of food production, disease control and safeguarding of public health, animal welfare and provision of health care to pets and other emerging livestock.

3.           Rationale of the Programme

Agricultural sector in Kenya contributes billion to the GDP, and livestock. Maasai Mara University is located in the biggest rangeland in the nation which is fast evolving in terms of the animal production systems, and it offers an exceptional platform for teaching and cutting-edge research. With the goodwill of the Maasai people, the university has a unique opportunity to reach out to the community.  This Bachelor of Animal Health and Production curriculum will seek to equip the students with the critical thinking and flexibility to accommodate emerging challenges in the industry, ranging from health, feeding, public health, livestock production economics to research. The students will be what Kenya needs for the future. In class, students get the latest in both theory and practical applications from dedicated staff and invited speakers. Lectures are complemented with hands-on laboratory experience and field course.

 3.1 Needs assessment/ market survey/ situation analysis

In principle, Animal Health and Production is a fundamental science build from the blocks of various sciences, which seeks to inculcate the deepest understanding of life. There is a need to increase the food production experts who can respond to the harsh realities climate change may unleash in the face of a ballooning population. With Kenya poised to be a middle-income country by 2030, the demand for wholesome and affordable animal proteins will increase and the expertise to do build this into reality has to be build. The university can therefore exploit the niche by being a leading producer of animal health and production paraprofessionals of international repute.

3.2 Justification of the programme

Maasai Mara University is located in the Kenyan rangelands renowned for animal production especially beefs. However, the dynamics of production are fast changing with climatic and land tenure changes. The demand for animal products such as milk, eggs, hides and skins, meat and fish are increasing and the demands for safe and wholesome products are increasing exponentially as Kenya heads to be a middle class nation. The University is therefore strategically placed to execute its core mandate of relevant teaching and research on animal science issues in the region and beyond.

 The Bachelor of Science in Animal Health and Production is designed to prepare students for career in the management of animal health and production for the 21st century. There is increased threat from evolving fast evolving and the emerging microbes, which calls for qualified and competent animal health practitioners, who are equipped with the latest and most advanced animal health techniques, the course will equip the students with skills and techniques that can increase food production and safeguard animal and human health even in the face of free trade which will see ease of microbe movement become a threatening phenomenon to human health. 

4.           Programme objective

  1. Train students who will be competent and para-veterinarians with anin-depth scientific and technological knowledge base and the practical experience to address issues relating to sustainable animal production and health management;
  2. Train students to integrate the planning for and management animal resources in a dynamic agro-production of livestock and wildlife resources in terms of disease management, genetic resources conservation and improvement and appropriate reproductive technology adoption;
  3. To provide firm foundation instill social and management and creative skills that prepare the students for an innovative, inclusive and entrepreneurial career for successful undertaking of self-employment, research and development oriented careers.

5.           Expected learning outcomes of both the program

To produce para-professionals who will steer the animal resource industry in the nation to an international level by working in research, teaching, public and civil service, as entrepreneurs', investors and consultants in the animal health and production industry, whether they will be pioneers in the technology transfer and adaptation, and ensure highest quality standards.

6.           ACADEMIC REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

Have a minimum aggregate of C+ (Plus) in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) and should have a minimum grade of C + (Plus) in each of the following subjects: Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics/Physics/Geography OR C+ (Plus) in each of the following subjects: Biological Sciences, Physical Sciences, Mathematics/Geography and C (plain) in English/Kiswahili, or 3rd Group II subject, or a Group III subject, or any Group IV or any Group V;

Or a minimum of C Plain in KCSE and at least a Credit Pass Diploma in Animal Health/ Agriculture/Medical Laboratory Technology from an institution approved by Kenya Veterinary Board (KVB);

Or, a minimum of a C- in KCSE with at least a Credit pass in Certificate and Diploma Animal Health/ Agriculture/Medical Laboratory Technology from an institution approved by Kenya Veterinary Board.

Or, a degree in a Biological Science from institutions approved by the Board

Or, any other qualifications equivalent to the above from an institution approved by KVB

COURSE REQUIREMENT

The B.Sc in Animal Health and Production exposes students to theory, practical, fieldwork, attachment and community service. The Department will offer academic support by providing quality services.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

  1. EXAMINATIONS AND CONTINOUS ASSESSMENT TESTS
  2. a) No candidate shall be allowed to graduate unless the candidate has passed in all the prescribed courses.
  3. b) There shall be special examination(s) for those candidates who miss the University examinations provided that such candidate(s) shall to the satisfaction of the Senate, prove that they were genuinely unable to take the examination(s).
  4. c) The pass mark for each course shall be 50%.
  5. d) This should be in terms of Continuous assessment tests (CATS), Practical in scientific courses, fieldwork, assignments, group works. The final end of semester examination shall constitute 70% of the total marks in each unit while the rest will constitute 30% of the total marks.
  6. e) As the B.Sc in Animal Health and Production degree is a non-classified, performance in each course shall be graded as follows:
  • 70% and above - Distinction
  • 60% and above but less than 70%      - Credit
  • 50% and above but less than 60% - Pass
  • Below 50% - Fail
  1. f) No candidate shall be allowed to sit for examinations without attending at least two-thirds of the lectures and all practicals.
  2. g) The University examinations shall consist of papers each covering one unit during the semester. The time allowed shall be two hours per paper, except in drawing that shall be three hours.
  3. h) Continuous Assessment shall contribute 30% and Written University examinations shall contribute 70% of the total marks, except where a course consists solely of practical work, it shall be assessed 100% by continuous assessment test, coursework and/or laboratory assignments.The weighing for continuous assessment in units that have practicals shall be as follows:
  • 15% Practicals
  • 5% Assignments
  • 10% Tests.
  1. i) Where a course has no practicals or laboratory assignments the weighting of the continuous assessment shall be composed of 20% tests, and 10% assignments.
  2. j) Practical attachment shall be assessed and graded on pass or fail basis.
  3. k)A candidate who misses an examination without a valid reason shall be deemed to have failed the examination, and shall be awarded a score of zero in the specific examination
  4. l) In order to proceed unconditionally to the second, third, and fourth year of study for the Bachelor of Science degrees in degree of Animal Health and Production, candidates must pass in all the required units.
  5. m) Candidates must pass in all the required units in the final year of study in order to qualify for the award of their respective degree.

SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS

 (a) A candidate shall be permitted to sit supplementary examinations in failed units up to a maximum of five units, in any one year of study.

 (b) Supplementary examinations shall normally be held at the end of the academic year during which the units have been taken.

(c) The maximum marks in supplementary examinations shall be 50% and shall not include continuous assessment marks.

(d)  A candidate who fails a unit evaluated wholly by continuous assessments shall be required to carry out additional work for examination during the supplementary examination period.

SPECIAL EXAMINATIONS

 (a)  If though unavoidable circumstances such as bereavement or sickness candidate is unable to sit for one or more examination papers, or is unable to undertake essential parts of the work for the continuous assessment the candidate may, on the recommendation of the Faculty Board of Examiners and with the approval of the Senate, be permitted to take special examinations or undertake extra work for continuous assessment.

(b) Special examinations shall be graded out of 100% and shall include continuous assessment marks.

REPEATING

(a) A candidate who fails a maximum of two supplementary units shall be allowed to proceed to the next year of study to re-sit the units, during the next time the units are being offered. Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study

(b) A candidate who fails more than two but less than six units after sitting supplementary examinations shall be allowed to register and re-sit the failed units externally in the subsequent academic year. Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study.

(c)  A candidate who fails in six (6) or seven (7) units at the ordinary university examinations in any given year of study shall be allowed to sit Supplementary Examinations but shall be allowed to repeat the failed units externally during the subsequent academic year. The candidate shall have the option of attending classes subject to payment of appropriate fees for all the failed units.  Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study.

(d) A candidate who fails to attend at least two-thirds of the lectures and all practical's in any unit(s) subject to a maximum of 6 or 7 units in any academic year, shall be required to re-do the unit(s) subject to (a & b above). Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study.

 (e)  A candidate who fails in one or less than six units prescribed under the final year of study during Supplementary Examinations shall re-sit the failed units externally in the subsequent academic year during the Ordinary Examinations when the units are offered.  Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study.

(e) During the entire period of study, no candidate shall be allowed to repeat any year of study twice

(f) During the entire period, no candidate shall be allowed to repeat a total of more than two years of study in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Horticulture, Animal Health, Production and processing and Land Resources Planning and   Management

RE-ADMISSION

(a) A candidate may be re-admitted to the year of study from academic leave, or on compassionate grounds such as bereavement or sickness, on the recommendation of the Faculty Board of Examiners and with the approval of the Senate

 (b)  A candidate who has been re-admitted after completing the first semester of academic year successfully shall be allowed to register only for the second semester of the academic year he/she is being re-admitted into.  The results of the examinations taken in the first semester shall stand.

DISCONTINUATION

  1. A candidate who fails in eight (8) or more units at the ordinary University examination in any academic year shall be DISCONTINUED.
  2. A candidate who fails a unit after a total of four attempts shall be DISCONTINUED.
  3. A candidate who fails in any unit after re-sitting externally, even after Supplementary Examinations shall be DISCONTINUED.
  4. A candidate who repeats the year of study after failing six (6) or seven (7) units at the Ordinary University Examinations, and subsequently fails in any unit during the Supplementary Examinations at the end of the repeating year shall be DISCONTINUED.

TRANSCRIPTS

At the end of each academic year, candidates shall be provided with a transcript in form of literal grades for the units taken during the year with one of the following recommendations:

            (i)  Proceed to the next year of study.

            (ii) Repeat the year externally

            (iii) Proceed to the next year of study conditionally

            (iv) Discontinued

            (v) Degree to be awarded.

APPEAL FOR RE-ASSESSMENT           

  1. A candidate may appeal to the Registrar (Academic) for a re-marking of a written examination paper on payment of appropriate fee that the senate shall determine from time to time, and on surrendering the transcript on which the grade for the concerned unit has been recorded, if already issued.
  2. The final mark recommended by the appointed examiner(s) shall be the final mark and grade awarded to the candidate for the unit.
  3. No appeal for re-marking of any units shall be entertained four weeks (one month) after the candidate has been notified of the results

EXAMINATIONS IRREGULARITIES

 (a) A candidate found guilty of any irregularities during any continuous assessment or University Examinations shall be subject to disciplinary action as per the University Examination Regulations.

(b) The Senate Examination Disciplinary Committee regulations shall apply in all examination disciplinary cases.

DEGREE AWARD 

(a) To be considered for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Science in the Animal Health and Production, a candidate must have passed all the required units in their respective departments.

No candidate shall be awarded the degree without passing the Maasai Mara University Common Courses, Practical Attachments and Livestock Duties.

(c) The Final Year Project (Research Projects II and III) shall be assessed through a written report and oral presentation. The student must pass in this unit in order to graduate.

CLASSIFICATION OF DEGREE

The Bachelor of Science degrees in the Animal Health and Production and, shall not be classified, however a minimum of 64 required units taken during the four years of study. The 64 required units shall not include University Common Courses, and Livestock Duties units

7.           MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

The B.Sc in Animal Health and Production is housed in the Department of Animal Sciences in the School of Tourism and Natural Resources Management. Leadership is offered by the Dean of School. Quality assurance of the programme is accomplished at the Directorate of Quality Assurance through the Senate, School Curriculum Board and the Departmental curriculum board.

7.1 DURATION AND STRUCTURE

  1. The BSc in Animal Health and Production runs for four full time academic years with a total of eight semesters. The number of courses per semester per year is indicated in Section 7.2.
  2. Each academic year will consist of two semesters, 15 weeks’ long
  3. A candidate must complete a minimum of twenty-four (24) weeks of attachment in a recognized institution. In addition, an examinable research project must be in a specialized area selected by the candidate.
  4. Candidates admitted with Diploma with a minimum grade of credit into the BSc in Animal Health and Production degree programmes in the STNRM, as per the Departmental entry requirements, may be considered for exemption in units equivalent to one academic year.Such students shall join the relevant programme at the start of the second year of study, unless otherwise specified by the respective department.
  5. A candidate in the B.Sc. Animal Health and Production shall be required to undertake practical attachment for a period of not less than eight (8) weeks each year during the second and third years of study.

7.2 COURSE DISTRIBUTION TABLE

S.NO.

UNIT CODE

COURSE CONTENT

Lecture Hours

Practical Hours

Credit Hours

 

SEMESTER 1

 

 

 

  1.  

CMJ 1100

COMMUNICATION SKILLS **

45

0

3.0

  1.  

AHP 1101

GROSS ANATOMY

45

45

4.5

  1.  

AHP 1102

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY I

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 1103

BIOCHEMISTRY I

30

30

3.0

  1.  

ZOO 1100

HIV/AIDS AND LIFESTYLE DISEASES   **

45

0

3.0

  1.  

AHP 1104

ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

30

30

3.0

7.      

AHP 1105

ZOOLOGY

30

30

3.0

8.      

AHP 1106

AGROMETEOROLOGY AND ECOLOGY FOR AGRICULTURE

30

15

2.5

 

SEMESTER 2

 

 

 

  1.  

AHP 1201

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY II

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 1202

BIOCHEMISTRY II

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 1203

HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY

45

45

4.5

  1.  

COM 1200

COMPUTER AND INFORMATION LITERACY **

30

0

2.0

  1.  

AHP 1205

BOTANY

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 1206

PHYSICS FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

 

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 1208

PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION

30

15

2.0

SECOND YEAR

S.NO.

UNIT CODE

COURSE CONTENT

Lecture Hours

Practical Hours

HOURS

 

SEMESTER 1

 

 

 

  1.  

ENS 2100

ENVIRONMENTAL SKILLS **

45

0

3.0

  1.  

AHP  2101

BIOSTATISTICS

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 2102

ANIMAL PARASITOLOGY

45

45

4.5

  1.  

AHP 2103

GENERAL PATHOLOGY

45

45

4.5

  1.  

AHP 2104

BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL DISEASES

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 2105

GENETICS AND CYTOGENETICS

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 2106

PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEEDING

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 2108

RUMINANT AND NON-RUMINANT PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT

45

30

4.0

 

SEMESTER 2

 

 

 

  1.  

AHP 2201

ANIMAL HEALTH

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 2202

VIROLOGY, PROTOZOAL AND RICKETTSIAL DISEASES

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 2203

CLINICAL PATHOLOGY

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 2205

ANIMAL BREEDING

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 2206

PASTURE, FORAGE PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 2207

PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF EMERGING LIVESTOCK

45

30

4.0

  1.  

REL 2100

PHILOSOPHY AND CRITICAL THINKING**

45

0

3.0

  1.  

AHP2208    

INTERNAL ATTACHMENT (8 WEEKS DURING LONG VACATION)

0

320

4.0

THIRD YEAR

S.NO.

UNIT CODE

COURSE CONTENT

Lecture Hours

Practical Hours

CREDIT HOURS

 

SEMESTER 1

 

 

 

  1.  

AHP 3101

RANGELAND MANAGEMENT

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 3102

VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY

45

15

3.5

  1.  

AHP 3103

PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 3104

ANIMAL HEALTH – II

 

 

3.0

  1.  

AHP 3105

THERIOGENOLOGY

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 3106

ANIMAL PRODUCTION – I

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 3107

AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES, EQUIPMENT

AND MACHINERY

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 3108

ROUTINE FARM PRACTICES

0

120

4.0

 

SEMESTER 2

 

 

 

  1.  

AHP 3202

ANIMAL FEED FORMULATION

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 3202

VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH

45

45

4.5

  1.  

AHP 3204

ANALYSIS OF FOOD AND FEEDSTUFF

30

30

3.0

  1.  

AHP 2315

SANITATION AND WASTE CONTROL

30

15

2.5

  1.  

AHP 3206

AQUATIC ANIMAL AND WILDLIFE HEALTH MANAGEEMTN

30

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 3207

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

45

0

3.0

  1.  

BBM 3200

ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS **

45

0

3.0

  1.  

AHP 3208

VETERINARY EPIDEMIOLOGY

45

15

3.5

9.      

AHP 3209

FIELD ATTACHMENT (8 WEEKS DURING LONG VACATION)

0

320

4.0

FOURTH YEAR

S.NO.

UNIT CODE

COURSE CONTENT

Lecture Hours

Practical Hours

CREDIT HOURS

 

SEMESTER 1

 

 

 

  1.  

AHP 4101

FOUNDATION OF DAIRY TECHNOLOGY

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 4102

MEAT TECHNOLOGY

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 4103

ANIMAL WELFARE, BIO-SAFETY AND ETHICS

30

15

2.5

  1.  

AHP 4104

RESEARCH PROJECT -I

0

60

2.0

  1.  

AHP 4106

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHARMACO-BIOTECHNOLOGY

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP4107

SOCIOLOGY, RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION STUDIES

45

0

3.0

  1.  

AHP4108

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

30

15

2.5

 

SEMESTER 2

 

 

 

  1.  

AHP 4201

RESEARCH PROJECT - II

0

60

2.0

  1.  

AHP 4202

LIVESTOCK POLICY AND LAW

30

0

2.0

  1.  

AHP 4203

LIVESTOCK BY-PRODUCTS PROCESSING

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 4204

DAIRY TECHNOLOGY

45

30

4.0

  1.  

AHP 4205

LIVESTOCK ECONOMICS & MARKETING

45

0

3.0

  1.  

AHP 4206

FARM ACCOUNTING

30

0

3.0

  1.  

AHP 4207

ONE HEALTH CONCEPT AND APPROACHES

30

15

2.5

  1.  

AHP 4208

FOOD QUALITY ASSURANCE AND SENSORY EVALUATION

45

30

4.0

**- COMMON COURSES